211/311: Is There a Case for Consolidation or Collaboration?

This report, “211/311: Is There a Case for Consolidation or Collaboration?,” from ICMA and the Ochs Center for Metropolitan Studies examines the history, growth, and breadth of and similarities and differences between 211 and 311 services, which allow residents to access information and nonemergency local services among communities throughout North America with a single call. The paper’s author posits the provocative, common-sense question of whether, given the growth of 311 and the prevalence of 211 systems, there are opportunities for consolidation or coordination between these types of one-call systems.